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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 35-40

A study of fetal umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery doppler velocimetry before and after treatment of severe maternal iron deficiency anaemia

1 Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, GMC, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SKIMS, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, L. D. Hospital, GMC, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Sheema Posh
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SKIMS, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cjhr.cjhr_142_20

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Background: Despite maternal iron deficiency anemia being a worldwide medical complication, very few studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of iron supplementations for treating and preventing adverse pregnancy sequelae. This study attempts to show the impact of maternal iron deficiency anemia on the mother and the fetus and whether treatment can reverse the physiological and pathological effects of anemia on the mother as well as the fetus. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vascular adaptation and extent of compensatory changes in the fetus with the change in maternal hemoglobin (Hb) levels and to study maternal and perinatal outcomes after treatment of maternal iron deficiency anemia. Methodology: The present study was an observational prospective study conducted on 50 pregnant women in GMC, Srinagar from January 2016 to June 2017. The study population was divided into two groups-Group A-Patients with moderate anemia – Hb 7–9 g/dl and Group B-Patients with severe anemia – Hb <7 g/dl. Group A received parenteral iron preparation and Group B received blood transfusion or packed red blood cells until Hb exceeded 7 g/dL, then parenteral iron was used. Maternal Hb and color Doppler were performed before and after treatment of anemia. Results: There was a decrease in the umbilical artery resistivity index (RI) after treatment of maternal anemia in both the groups and the decrease was more in those who received blood transfusion. There was an improvement in middle cerebral artery RI in both the groups after treatment and the increase was statistically significant. The C/U ratio was normalized to >1.1 in both the study groups after treatment of anemia. Conclusion: Our data support the fact that maternal Hb content of <7 g/dl is strongly associated with marked fetal hemodynamic adaptation and must be treated with acute red cell transfusion. Moderate anemia (>7 g/dl) is not sufficient to trigger fetal blood flow redistribution and can be treated with parenteral iron. Close monitoring of the fetal umbilical and cerebral circulation by Doppler examination in anemic pregnancies allows the measurement of the amplitude of fetal vascular response, early assessment of fetal damage and helps in improving fetal outcome as well.

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