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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 62-65

A cross-sectional study on quality of life and comorbidities among geriatric population living in urban field practicing area of a medical college in Kolkata, West Bengal


Department of Community Medicine, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Date of Submission08-Dec-2020
Date of Decision01-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance29-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication18-Oct-2022

Correspondence Address:
Malvika Dwivedi
B4 Government Housing Complex, 32, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata - 700 019, West Bengal
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/cjhr.cjhr_168_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Aging is irreversible process accompanied by an increased risk of disease, disability, decreased functional capacity, and eventually death. It affects every individual, family, community, and society. Objectives: The study was to assess the sociodemographic profile, morbidity pattern, and quality of life (QOL) among the geriatric population living in the urban field practice of a Medical College in Kolkata. Methodology: A community-based study was designed to study the morbidity pattern and QOL of elderly residing in the urban field practice of Medical College in Kolkata. As per availability and feasibility, a total of 247 geriatric people were interviewed by visiting house to house. To assess the QOL of elderly people, the World Health Organization BREF questionnaire was used for the study. It consists of physical, psychological, environmental, and social relationship domains. Results: The mean QOL score varied significantly with religion in psychological, social, and environmental health domains, with age in physical, social, and environmental health domains with the type of family in physical and psychological health domains and with marital status in the social relationship domain. Conclusion: The present study revealed that hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most common morbidities among the elderly study participants, occurring more commonly in females than in males. Among the four domains, the mean QOL score was maximum in the social relationship domain.

Keywords: Co-morbidities, field practicing area, geriatrics, quality of life


How to cite this article:
Mallik S, Paria B, Dwivedi M. A cross-sectional study on quality of life and comorbidities among geriatric population living in urban field practicing area of a medical college in Kolkata, West Bengal. CHRISMED J Health Res 2022;9:62-5

How to cite this URL:
Mallik S, Paria B, Dwivedi M. A cross-sectional study on quality of life and comorbidities among geriatric population living in urban field practicing area of a medical college in Kolkata, West Bengal. CHRISMED J Health Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Nov 27];9:62-5. Available from: https://www.cjhr.org/text.asp?2022/9/1/62/358816




  Introduction Top


Aging is a universal phenomenon accompanied by an increased risk of disease, disability, decreased functional capacity, and eventually death. It affects every individual, family, community, and society. The world is in the midst of a unique and irreversible process of demographic transition which will result in increasing life expectancy and increase in the proportion of the elderly population in near future.[1] At present India is passing through a stage of demographic transition and it has the world's second-largest aged population.[2] As per census 2011, 8.6% of the total population of India is in the age group of 60 years and above (103.9 million).[3] The coexistence of multiple medical conditions makes elderly people prey of functional decline, disability, and higher hospital admissions.[4] The most common morbidities observed among the elderly are depression (31.4%), followed by musculoskeletal disorder (25.5%), hypertension (24.1%), gastrointestinal problems (11.5%), diabetes mellitus (5.9%), and neurological problems (4.7%).[5] The World Health Organization (WHO) defined quality of life (QOL) as “an individual's perception of life in the context of culture and value system in which he or she lives and in relation to his or her goals, expectations, standards, and concerns.”[6] It is a broad concept covering the individual's physical health, mental state, level of independence, social relationships, spiritual beliefs, and the environment.[7] At the global level, QOL among the elderly is an important area of concern as it reflects their health and well-being.[8] Different sociodemographic factors such as age, education, marital status, and family structure had great influence on the QOL among the elderly population.[9] Various studies have shown that chronic morbid conditions are associated with low QOL in elderly people.[10] In India, very few studies have done on the QOL of elderly people in urban slums. In this context, this study was done to assess the morbidity profile and different domains of QOL and to find out the association of QOL with sociodemographic factors among the elderly people in the urban field practice area of a medical college.

Objectives

  1. To assess the sociodemographic profile and morbidity pattern of the geriatric population living in the urban field practice of a Medical College in Kolkata
  2. To assess the QOL of the study population
  3. To find out the association present, if any between QOL and sociodemographic profile.



  Methodology Top


A cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban field practice area of Medical College in Kolkata.

A community-based study was designed to study the morbidity pattern and QOL of elderly residing in the area. Persons of the age group 60 years and above were included in the study.

Severely ill persons and a person who did not give consent were excluded from the study. A list of 60 years and above people was obtained from the urban health center data beforehand. As per availability and feasibility, a total of 247 geriatric people were interviewed by visiting house to house. The study was conducted after getting permission from the institutional ethics committee. A predesigned pretested schedule was used which included questions regarding sociodemographic profile, morbidity pattern, and QOL-related questions. To assess the QOL of elderly people, the WHO BREF questionnaire was used for the study. The questionnaire was translated in vernacular and then was again back translated to English for validation. It consists of physical, psychological, environmental, and social relationship domain.

It had 26 questions. A transformed score between 0 and 100 was developed for each domain for final analysis.

Appropriate statistical methodologies such as percentages, student's t-test, and Chi-square test were used for analyzing data with the help of the SPSS software 21.


  Results Top


[Table 1] shows that 43.31% of the study population was within 60–70 years of age and 21.87% were >80 years. Around 70.04% of them were male. The majority of the elderly people under study were Hindu by religion (78.94%). Around 38.46% of the geriatric people were doing business, 31.58% were retired, and 47.36% were widow/widower/separated. Around half of the study population (51.41%) was illiterate and belonged to socioeconomic Class IV (56.28%).
Table 1: Distribution of the study population according to their sociodemographic profile (n=247)

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[Table 2] revealed that hypertension (42.91%) and diabetes mellitus (22.67%) and cerebrovascular accident (21.86%) were the most common morbidities among the elderly study participants, occurring more commonly in females than in males.
Table 2: Morbidity patterns of the study population (n=247)

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[Table 3] shows that the WHO-BREF score is more in the physical health domain and psychological health domain in people younger than 70 years, married persons, among Hindus and those from the nuclear family. In the physical health domain, the relationship was significant for age and type of family, but in the psychological health domain, significant relationship was found for religion and type of family.
Table 3: Distribution of the study population according to sociodemographic profile and Quality Of Life - World Health Organization bref domain score

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In social relationship domain, the WHO-BREF score was significantly more in the age group 70 years and above, among Muslims and widow/widower or separated persons.

In the environmental health domain, significant relationship was found for age and religion, the score was significantly more in the age group 70 years and above, among Hindus.


  Discussion Top


This observational, cross-sectional study was carried out among the geriatric population residing at the urban field practice area of Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital. Out of total 247 study participants, maximum subjects were male (70.04%), aged 60–70 years (43.31%), Hindu by religion (78.94%), currently married (52.64%), illiterate (51.41%), and belonged to socioeconomic Class IV (56.28%) according to modified BG Prasad Scale 2019 which was similar to the study findings done by Karmakar et al. in Tripura.[1] Around half of the study subjects belonged to nuclear family (55.87%) and most of them were businessman (38.46%) by occupation.

The most common morbidity found among the study subjects in the present study was hypertension (42.91%), followed by diabetes mellitus (22.67%), and cerebrovascular accident (21.86%), occurring more frequently among females than among males. Other morbidities include asthma (17.81%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.74%), chronic liver disease (5.66%), malignancy (4.05%), and parkinsonism (2.83%). Amonkar et al. in their study in Raigad District, Maharashtra observed that the majority of the elderly were suffering from hypertension, joint pain, hearing impairment, and diabetes mellitus.[11] In the study conducted by Shah et al., common ailments found among the study population were joint pain (42.8%), cataract (32.8%), hypertension (22.4%), and diabetes (17.2%).[7] Dasgupta et al. in their study on elderly people in a rural area of West Bengal found that hypertension (41.9%), diabetes (42.8%), and arthralgia (80.3%) were the most commonly reported conditions.[12] Kishore et al. carried out a study in Dehradun, mentioned the most prevalent morbidity was hypertension (41.4%).[13]

In the present study, the mean score of the QOL (WHO QOL BREF) in the social domain was maximum as compared to other three domains. Similar finding was shown in the study of Shah et al. where the mean score was maximum in social domain.[7] In this study, the mean score in the physical and psychological health domains was better in individuals aged <70 years, in Hindus, currently married persons and those belonging to nuclear family. In the physical health domain, the differences were statistically significant for age and type of family, but for psychological health, religion and type of family have shown significant difference. In social relationship domain, the mean score was significantly better in study subjects aged 70 years and above, in Muslims, and in widowed or separated individuals. In the environmental health domain, significantly higher mean score was found in persons aged 70 years and above and in Hindus. In the study conducted by Shah et al. at Ahmedabad, the QOL as per four different domains was significantly better among males as compared to females. They also found that the QOL in physical, environmental, and psychological domains were better in those who were educated and in married individuals living with their spouses.[7] Karmakar et al. in their study in Tripura observed that in the physical health domain individuals aged <70 years were having better score. Hindu religion, nuclear family status, and higher socioeconomic class were the factors found having significantly better score in psychological health domain. Comparing scores obtained in social relationship domain, male participants, who were illiterate, businessmen by occupation were having better scores. In environmental domain, the factors found to have a statistically significant association were primary education, business by occupation, and higher socioeconomic class.[1] The observations of the study conducted by Hameed et al. at Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka were among <70 years better physical domain score as compared to >=70 years and among literate, and currently married elderly all domain scores were higher compared to illiterates and those without partners.[14]


  Conclusion Top


The present study revealed that hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most common morbidities among the elderly study subjects, occurring more commonly in females than in the males. This shows the need for regular health checkup at urban health center and treatment for diabetes and hypertension for those elderly people suffering from these diseases to avoid complications such as cerebrovascular accident. Among the four domains, the mean QOL score was maximum in the social relationship domain. The mean QOL score varied significantly with religion in all psychological, social, and environmental health domains, with age in physical, social, and environmental health domains, with the type of family in physical and psychological health domains and with marital status in the social relationship domain. The QOL in old age can be improved by organizing cultural programs, training for yoga and meditation, and old age clubs in the community.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Karmakar N, Datta A, Nag K, Tripura K. Quality of life among geriatric population: A cross-sectional study in a rural area of Sepahijala district, Tripura. Indian J Public Health 2018;62:95-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
World Population Prospects The 2015 Revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Poulation Division. New York: United Nations; 2015. Available from: https://www.esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 19].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Elderly in India—Profile and Programmes. Central Statistics Office. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Government of India; 2016. Available from: http://www.mospi.gov.in. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 19].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
George PP, Heng BH, De Castro Molina JA, Wong LY, Wei Lin NC, Cheah JT. Self-reported chronic diseases and health status and health service utilization – Results from a community health survey in Singapore. Int J Equity Health 2012;11:44.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kamble SV, Ghodke YD, Dhumale GB, Goyal RC, Avchat SS. Health status of elderly persons in rural area of India. Ind Med Gaz 2012;295-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
World Health Organization. WHOQOL-BREF: Introduction, Administration, Scoring and Generic Version of the Assessment. Programme on Mental Health. Geneva: WHO; 1996. Available from: http://www.who.int/mental_health/media/en/76.pdf.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Shah VR, Christian DS, Prajapati AC, Patel MM, Sonaliya KN. Quality of life among elderly population residing urban field practice area of a tertiary care institute of Ahmadabad city, Gujarat. J Family Med Prim Care 2017;6:101-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.
Kumar SG, Majumdar A, Pavithra G. Quality of life (QOL) and its associated factors using WHOQOL-BREF among elderly in Urban Puducherry, India. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8:54-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Barua A, Mangesh R, Harsha Kumar HN, Mathew S. A cross-sectional study on quality of life in geriatric population. Indian J Community Med 2007;32:146-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.
McDaid O, Hanly MJ, Richardson K, Kee F, Kenny RA, Savva GM. The effect of multiple chronic conditions on self-rated health, disability and quality of life among the older populations of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: A comparison of two nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002571.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Amonkar P, Mankar MJ, Thatkar P, Sawardekar P, Goel R, Anjenaya S. A Comparative study of health status and quality of life of elderly people living in old age homes and within family setup in Raigad district, Maharashtra. Indian J Community Med 2018;43:10-3.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.
Dasgupta A, Pan T, Paul B, Bandopadhyay L, Mandal S. Quality of life of elderly people in a rural area of West Bengal: A community-based study. Med J DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2020 Apr15; 11:527-31.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kishore S, Juyal R, Semwal J, Chandra R. Morbidity profile of elderly persons. JK Sci 2007;9:87-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Hameed S, Brahmbhatt KR, Patil DC, Prasnna KS, Jayaram S. Quality of life among the geriatric population in a rural area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India. Glob J Med Public Health 2014;3:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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