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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 71-75

Prevalence and causes of endemic hydric fluorosis in a village in rural Karnataka, India

1 Department of Community Medicine, MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Biostatistics, MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Arjunan Isaac
Department of Community Medicine, MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bengaluru - 560 054, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cjhr.cjhr_174_20

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Background: Fluorosis is caused because of excessive fluoride intake. Karnataka is one among the states that have reported high fluoride content in the groundwater. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and clinical manifestations suggestive of fluorosis, along with the causes for fluorosis among the population of Kaiwara village. Methodology: The present cross-sectional survey was performed among 3003 permanent residents of Kaiwara village. Demographic details such as age, occupation, education, economic status, and anthropometric details were recorded. Parameters such as predominant diet, genu valgum, and grades of goiter were studied and recorded to determine their association with fluorosis. Dean's index was used to detect dental fluorosis. The levels of fluoride in urine were estimated using the ELICO-LI-126 Fluoride ion analyzer. Results: The most observed age group among study subjects was 10–49 years (males: 813 and females: 1304). Age, diet, genu valgum, and grade of goiter were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with Dean's index. Of the study subjects, about 11.8% were unable to touch their toes indicating fluorosis. 2.075 mg/dl was the mean baseline fluoride level found in all the four samples from the main water tanks supplying water to the village. Out of 100 urine samples randomly taken, all had fluoride levels above the acceptable levels (>0.1 ppm). Conclusion: Hydric fluorosis is endemic among the general population of Kaiwara village in Karnataka. The main leading cause for fluorosis occurrence in this region might be due to high fluoride levels reported in the groundwater.

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