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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 279-281

Complexities of Covishield Vaccine on COVID-Positive History Family in India after the Second (Booster) Dose

1 Department of Electrical Engineering, PVGs College of Engineering and Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Physics, Nowrosjee Wadia College, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission12-Apr-2022
Date of Decision14-Jul-2022
Date of Acceptance26-Sep-2022
Date of Web Publication17-Mar-2023

Correspondence Address:
Parikshit Gautam Jamdade
PVGs College of Engineering and Technology, Pune, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cjhr.cjhr_50_22

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COVID-19 epidemic severely affects the social life of people living in India. The best solution to the COVID-19 problem is the vaccination of the people. In India, COVID-19 vaccination started from January 16, 2021, mainly with the Covishield vaccine. In this study, the COVID-positive history family was selected who had taken the first and second (booster) doses residing at Pune, Maharashtra, India, was followed up to check for any side effects postvaccination. Their data were collected with participant-administered questions. The predominant side effects reported were uneasiness, pyrexia (fever), voice difference, vomiting, and headache. The side effects were started at 2–16 h postvaccination while it takes an average duration of 48–60 h to last. Analysis shows nonpresence of major and serious side effects makes the Covidshield vaccine safe for use in the COVID-positive history population.

Keywords: COVID-19 virus, covishield, side effects, vaccination, vaccines

How to cite this article:
Jamdade PG, Jamdade SG. Complexities of Covishield Vaccine on COVID-Positive History Family in India after the Second (Booster) Dose. CHRISMED J Health Res 2022;9:279-81

How to cite this URL:
Jamdade PG, Jamdade SG. Complexities of Covishield Vaccine on COVID-Positive History Family in India after the Second (Booster) Dose. CHRISMED J Health Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Apr 1];9:279-81. Available from: https://www.cjhr.org/text.asp?2022/9/4/279/371940

  Introduction Top

In India, on average, 10,000 people were affected by the COVID-19 virus daily. All schools, colleges, government offices, restaurants, and commercial and industrial factories are closed down. Peoples are reluctant to go outside to do work. The Indian economy is severely affected by COVID-19. Peoples are not able to do work as all transportation facilities are closed and people are banned from using road and air travel and railways. More than 30% of the population in India loses their jobs and they are forced to live in home while others are doing their jobs on the basis of work from home. People are receiving only 30% of their salary. Migrant workers and laborers were forced to go to their native places as jobs were not available. The Indian economy was losing nearly over US$4.5 billion every day. The Government of India, declared various economic packages to boost up the economic growth, but they were very less and unsupportable which affect the social life of people in India.

We know that vaccines are useful to curb diseases in humans and their growth. These diseases are seasonal influenza, rabies, polio, pertussis, and Japanese encephalitis. Getting vaccinated is the most easy and effective way to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccination helps to develop the human immune system by generating antibodies to fight against infection. Furthermore, it reduces the severity of the infection due to the development of antibodies and reduces the chances of hospitalization due to the COVID-19 infection. To avoid infection, people must take precautions such as wearing a mask, using hand sanitizer, washing hands with soap and water, and maintaining social distance (minimum physical distance of at least 2 feet). COVID-19 virus mostly affects the alveolar Type II cells and causes apoptosis, cellular damage, and altered production of the pulmonary surfactant. Currently, more than 200 vaccines are under development against COVID-19 worldwide including mRNA, replicating or nonreplicating viral-vectored vaccines, DNA vaccines, autologous dendritic cell-based vaccines, and an inactivated virus vaccine.[1]

Covishield, Covaxin, and Sputnik V are the three vaccines approved by the Drug Controller General of India (Government of India) against COVID-19 infection. Covishield is developed by Oxford–AstraZeneca with the help of Serum Institute of India, Pune. Covaxin is developed by Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech Limited with the help of the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology, while Sputnik V was developed by Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology in association with Dr. Reddy's. More than 20 million doses were available by August 2021 in India.[2],[3],[4]

Covishield vaccines passed Phase I/II controlled trials in April–May 2020 mainly in Brazil, the UK, and South Africa. Results show that the spike-specific T cells were developed (peak) on day 14 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) response by day 28, and were boosted by the second dose. Neutralizing antibodies were found in 91% after a single dose and 100% after the second dose of the vaccine. Phase III trials of the vaccine were carried out in the UK from May to August 20, by having participants aged between 18 and 55 years, 56 and 69 years, and 70 years. The results were good, showing the median anti-spike IgG response after 28 days across all age groups. Third phase trials have shown that the Covishield vaccine is 91.6% effective.[5],[6] The gap between two dosages is recommended by doctors depending on the vaccine taken by populations. Serious blood clots and low levels of blood platelets are rare reports following immunization with this vaccine. The reaction is said to occur in 5–28 days but may occur up to 40 days after vaccination.[7],[8] Populations affected after immunization with this vaccine are about 1 out of every 25,000 to 1 out of every 400,000 persons after the first dose and about 1 out of every 500,000 persons after the second dose.[9],[10],[11]

In India, vaccination was started on January 16, 2021, onward in phases. Initially, health-care workers were vaccinated with either Covishield vaccine. In India, vaccination is given by developing priority groups. The central government of India had taken the vaccination responsibility of the 45 years old age population while the state government had taken the responsibility of the population having an age below 45 years. In India, 430.4 million people are infected by COVID-19, while 5.22 million peoples die due to COVID-19. In India, still, 11,132 COVID-19 active cases are reported. 7925.1 million cumulative total samples are tested for COVID-19 up to March 10, 2022, by the Government of India.

The latest updates on the COVID-19 vaccine in India as on date are:

  • 18562 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine had been given in India, out of these 9949 million people had taken one dose while nearly 8383 million people had taken two doses of the vaccine and they are considered fully vaccinated. Precautionary doses are given to the 231 million peoples
  • The total vaccination centers in India are 21,351. Out of these vaccination centers, 20,526 are government while 825 are private
  • Total registered participants are 10,766 million, out of these 228 million people are 12–14 years old, 587 million people are 14–17 years old, 6297 million people are 18–44 years old, while nearly 3655 million people are 45 + years old
  • Out of those vaccinated, nearly 9330 million participants are male, while 8957 million participants are female
  • Across India, minimum of 35,000 people are taking vaccines every day
  • The Government of India developed a Co-WIN app for the registration of vaccine aspirants. From the Co-WIN app, anyone can register for vaccination, book the vaccination slot, search the vaccination centers, manage the appointment, and download the vaccination certificate
  • The Co-WIN app is available in ten languages for users
  • In India, as per the data collected by the Government of India, the efficacy rate for Covishield, Covaxin, and Sputnik V vaccines are 90%, 81%, and 83%, respectively
  • India will produce 800 million doses of the Sputnik V vaccine by the end of the year
  • Bharat Biotech can produce Covaxin doses to 12 million/month
  • Sputnik V vaccine production in India is now gradually increasing to 40 million doses/month
  • The Government of India is in the process of making these vaccines available in the open market so that vaccine manufacturers can sell these vaccines directly to the population and they will be able to decide the price of each dose depending on the demand and supply.

  Methods Top

We know that adverse side effects were seen in the non-COVID history population and most studies are based on these while a lower number of studies are performed on the COVID history population. In this study, we have mentioned the side effects on COVID history family postvaccination of the second dose of Covishield vaccine having different age groups located in Pune, India. The participants were administered the first dose and second doses of the Covishield vaccine. All family members received the standard common medicine which includes azithromycin (500 mg twice a daily), oseltamivir (75 mg twice a daily), nosyfed (5 mg twice a daily), ivermectin (3 mg daily), Omez (20 mg daily), and zincovit (850 mg daily). There were three participants in the family having age 43, 50, and 78 years who are COVID positive and recovered from it.

  Results Top

After taking the second dose Covishield vaccine, there were nonserious side effects observed over a week. The predominant side effects reported were uneasiness, pyrexia (fever), voice difference, vomiting, and headache. The side effects were started at 2–16 h postvaccination while it takes an average duration of 48–60 h to last. To reduce these side effects postvaccination in India, doctors are prescribing paracetamol. Paracetamol reduces fever but does not for other side effects. These side effects are expected which can indicate the vaccine is working to develop immunization. We noted that COVID-positive history family after recovery from COVID-19 are facing few medical problems. These problems are reduced postvaccination. [Table 1] mentions the comparative analysis of medical problems faced by the COVID history population prevaccination, postvaccination (first dose), and postvaccination (second dose) (in terms of hours).
Table 1: Condition associated with COVID history population-prevaccination, postvaccination (first dose), and postvaccination (second dose) (in terms of hours)

Click here to view

  Conclusion Top

The COVID-19 epidemic is a global threat and challenge, affecting the social life of humans in the world. Vaccine hesitancy does not help the efforts taken by the government to control COVID-19. People should change their mindset and must understand that to stop the COVID-19 epidemic, vaccination is the best and ultimate solution. The side effects of the Covishield vaccine are moderate in frequency, mild in severity, and short-term durations. The major side effects reported were uneasiness, pyrexia (fever), voice difference, vomiting, and headache. The side effects were started from 2 to 16 h postvaccination while it takes an average duration of 48–60 h to last. Our study has presented safety concerns of the Covishield vaccine in COVID history populations.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

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Gupta M, Kapoor I. An update on coronavirus disease covid-19 vaccines. J Med Evid 2021;2:24-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
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Jamdade PG, Jamdade SG. Side-effects of covishield vaccine on COVID positive history family in India. World J Surg Infect 2022;1:40-2.  Back to cited text no. 4
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  [Table 1]


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